In AP United States History we occasionally write DBQ essays. DBQ stands for Document Based Question. We are given a number of documents with information on a certain topic and we are to write a paper using those documents as outside information.

During the 1820’s and 1830’s, a new political party built upon the principles of the older Republican Democrats and recent United States president Andrew Jackson came to power. They were known as the Jacksonian Democrats. They believed in a strong democracy, but unlike the Republican Democrats, they were not strict constitutionalists. Strong supporters of individual liberty and economic opportunity, they thought themselves the guardians of American democracy. Their opinion is in some ways correct and in some ways misguided. Many policies by the Jacksonians did much to help the common white man in America. They seemed righteous to themselves if not to others. However, many actions against other races may sway peoples’ view of the Jacksonians, and give them an ignorantly happy appearance.

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Sci Fair – Finale

Now that we have finished our science paper completly and have almost completly finished our poster board we are nearly done with our science project… phew. Anyways, here’s part two of my science fair paper. (Contains mostly graphs and charts.)


Recorded Data:


Before Mass


Before Submersion


1st Day


(Immediate Submersion)

2nd Day Observations


3rd Day Observations (Taken out)

After Mass


% of Mass Lost



- Shiny

- Metallic

- Half a pipe

- Stained

- Dense

- Sinks

- No change

- Hot to the touch



Stainless Steel


- Dull

- Metallic

- Screw

- Slight rust

- Dense

- Sinks

- Serious Bubbling

- Most rust is gone

- Slight bubbling

- Bubbling

- Bits of sample still in acid

- Smells burned like fireworks





- Dull

- Ridged

- Not Dense

- Dowel

- Floats

- Turned Black

- Acid and dowel are completely black

- Thinner

- Hot to the touch

- Slivers come off when dried in paper towel





- Dull

- Porous

- Smooth on one side

- Tile Piece

- Dense

- Sinks

- Slight bubbling

- Bubbling stopped

- No change





- Shiny

- Smooth

- Metallic

- Not dense

- Thin

- Part of can

- Sinks

- Acid is very foggy/white

- Slight heat

- Acid is no longer translucent



* Increase due to absorption of acid.


Data Analysis:

   The graph above shows the percentage of mass lost in each type of material. The least corrosion happen to the stainless steel with a 0.38% grams lost. Next is copper which an average of 0.81% grams were lost. Aluminium had 11.48% of it’s mass lost. Finally wood had approximately 50% of it’s mass lost. Ceramics on the other hand actually gained mass due to absorption of the acid.

Data Analysis:

   The graph shown above displays the before and after mass of each sample’s average. Copper started as 4.94 grams but lost 0.04 grams. Stainless Steel was originally 5.24 grams but also lost a miniscule amount of 0.02 grams. Wood on the other hand started as 0.56 grams and lost half (0.28 grams) of it’s mass. The ceramics started with 7.92 grams and actually gained 1.96 grams, this is probably due to the porousness of the material and the acid being absorbed. Aluminium began with 1.22 grams and lost 0.14 grams. The order of most corrosive resistant to least is Stainless Steel, Copper, Aluminium, and Wood. Ceramics gained mass so it can not be counted.


    The results of this experiment prove that the hypothesis was accepted. Stainless Steel did survive the experiment with the least amount of percentage of mass lost. However, the Ceramics sample did technically have the least percentage of mass lost. It had a gain of 24.75% of its original mass. This was most likely though from an absorption of the acid. The Ceramics must have corroded a little bit, but the amount of mass in absorption probably surpassed the amount lost.

    Stainless Steel had the same results as we expected it to have. There was little bubbling on each sample when it was immediately dumped into the acid, but by day two, all of it stopped. This must have been accredited to the passive film that would repair itself on each Stainless Steel sample. The expectation was that Aluminium would have less percentage of mass lost than Copper. Aluminium has an oxide layer that can repair itself, while Copper’s  film of reddish brown Cuprous Oxide does not repair. Copper’s film layer must have been stronger and more resistant than Aluminium’s film. Aluminium had very distinctive results on each test for percentage of mass lost (Appendix A). Wood had predictable results with fifty percent of its mass lost. Ceramics had very strange results. All of the samples shared the same odd characteristic of gaining about one fourth of its mass. It was expected that Ceramics would be second best in resistance to corrosion, but our results showed different.

   One of the main errors in this experiment was the increase of mass in the Ceramics samples. Even though drying the sample was tried, it is recommended to dry all samples a great amount before measuring the after mass. It is also recommended to test the Aluminium samples additionally to see if the percentage of mass lost will settle around a similar number. There might have been another independent variable that had been introduced to the Aluminium samples only. More tests would even out the data results and offer more solid results.

And once we have finished our poster board for the actual fair, I will try to upload a picture of it…

An American Plague Journal (Entries 4 & 5)

This is follow-up of my last post about my American Plague Journal I have been writing about. In case you did not read my last ones, I am writing a Journal about a character I made up set in the book An American Plague.


Monday, September 2, 1793             Journal Entry: Chapter 4

Dear Mom and Dad,

Lots of interesting things have been happening lately in Philadelphia, and I need to catch you up. While attending a legislature meeting, in the name of the newspaper, everyone there got quite a big fright. Their door keeper, Joseph Fry, had perished from Yellow Fever in his room. His room was in the west wing, which was not that far away from where they were meeting.

Mayor Clarkson was getting worried about all the poor people on the street that were getting sick and had nowhere to go. He met with the Guardians about the situation. The Guardians were responsible for everyone in the streets of Philadelphia. The Guardians immediately moved as many people as they could into Ricketts’ Circus. *The circus had then became a serious problem. No one was found to care for the people there and it was in a residential area. The households nearby the circus demanded for the sick to be removed or they said they would burn it down! Just imagine how horrible that would be if the Guardians did not do anything. The Guardians and Mayor Clarkson found an unoccupied mansion outside the city and started to move all of the people still alive at Ricketts’ there. They did not legally have the right to take the mansion, but the owner was in England at the time.

The house was easily packed full of people, but only 4 doctors were assigned to help them. Soon after they were assigned 2 of them died of the fever and the other 2 visited on occasion. To make it even worse the Guardians soon left the city to fend for itself.

George Washington had seen the danger of the federal employees and suggested that they move to Germantown. They employees disagreed and said that the meeting could only be held in Philadelphia. George Washington left anyway and the government ceased to work. Along with all of this happening a meteorite fell into Third Street. What worse is their to come?

*Personification                                                                                                   John Franklin


Sunday,  September 8, 1793           Journal Entry: Chapter 5

Dear Mom and Dad,

Times have been pretty grave here in Philadelphia. It is pretty clear that the fever is winning, and droves of people are still leaving the city. Yet there were dead everywhere something amazing happened on Thursday, September 5th. The Free African Society had a meeting to discuss if they should use their members and skills to help their white neighbors.

They had called the meeting because just a few days before The Free African Society had received a letter for *Dr. Rush was down on his knees and begging them to help because God had granted them a special resistance to the disease. The blacks had many reasons not to help though. At one point in their lifetime everyone at that meeting was a slave. Another reason was that the Blacks were trying to raise $3,000 to build a new church, but very few whites were willing to give any money. Those same people gave $15,000 to Santo Domingan refugee and some of them even had slaves of their own! The Free African Society certainly had reason not to help, but they helped!

It was pretty ironic that the Free African Society was the only ones that would offer their services to help the whites. They soon became very popular and if anyone was sick they would call for a nurse. The only problem was that demand was a lot higher than the supply of nurses. Soon wealthy neighbors started to bid against each other for the nurse and prices raised to about 5 – 4 dollars a day! Many people got the wrong message and thought that the black nurse were charging exceptionally high prices for their work when they would actually do it for free, but the whites were bidding for them to get them first.

Soon people started to understand about the prices, but then the unexpected happened. The blacks started to come down with the fever. I’m not sure what’s going to happen next, but I will keep you caught up.

*Hyperbole                                                                                                          John Franklin




Sci Paper 1 – It Begins

So now that our science fair project has gone really well (no lost fingers), it’s time to write our paper. Well, most of it has already been written and the rest is on it’s way. Here!

Problem Statement/Question:

   How does Sulfuric Acid affect common materials?


    The reason this project is being conducted, is to see which materials will corrode and which materials will be most resistant to Sulfuric Acid. Acid rain is composed of Sulfuric Acid, which corrodes different structures over time if they are not properly sanitized. In this experiment, different materials’ resistance to corrosion in Sulfuric Acid will be tested. This will lead us to the conclusion of which materials are best to use for future construction of structures. this can help protect against corrosion for monuments, office buildings, parking lots, etc.


   Everyone knows that acid is dangerous and it burns through everything. Different materials have unique properties and one of those properties includes resistance to corrosion. Corrosion is the gradual destruction of materials by chemical reactions over time. It occurs when acidic substances come into contact with other substances such as metals. Most alloys and metals are prone to corrosion, and most plastics are resistant to acid. Five materials will be tested in the same type of acid for the same amount of time. The percentage of mass lost will be calculated from each sample to determine the most resistant material.

   Copper (Cu) is the last member of the first-row transition metals. It is only reactive to oxidizing acids. Sulfuric Acid is oxidizing which means it can change the material it touches. In pure elemental form, copper is very strong in resistance to Sulfuric Acid. Copper forms a film made of reddish brown Cuprous Oxide on its surface to protect against corrosion. However, if this film is destroyed, it will not repair itself and allow the substance to corrode away the copper. Moisture plays a large role in the amount of corrosion that will occur to copper.

   Aluminium (Al) is known for its very good resistance to corrosion. This is mostly credited to the thin oxide layer (like Copper) that forms around the aluminum to prevent corrosion. This oxide layer can repair itself almost immediately when it is corroded. Pitting is the most common type of corrosion that can occur with aluminum. This happens when electrolytes dissolve the oxide layer.  Electrolytes are located in water and moisture. They also contain dissolved salts, usually chlorides. Even if these Chlorides are present in the environment of the aluminum, they will weaken the resistance to corrosion.

   Stainless Steel contains approximately 0.08% Carbon, 2% Manganese, 0.045% Phosphorus, 0.03% Sulfur, 0.75% Silicon, 8-12% Nickel, 0.1% Nitrogen, and 10.5% Chromium (Cr) which has a very high resistance to all types of acid. The chromium, when in contact with oxygen, forms a natural barrier of chromium oxide called a “passive film”. Only microns thick, this invisible and inert film is self repairing. It will repair itself to protect from corrosion. Most of the world monuments are constructed using Stainless Steel 304. Halogens are elements that form strongly acidic compounds with hydrogen. These Halogens corrode Stainless Steel.

   Ceramics are supposedly more resistant to corrosion than metals or alloys. This is because they are made of baked clay most of the time. Clay is more alkaline than acidic and therefore more resistant to acids. They have a crystalline structure.

   Wood is very reactive to Sulfuric Acid due to being made of primarily Carbon (C). Carbon-based materials are all reactive and can be chemically burned. This is an exothermic change where energy is released.

   Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) in pure form should avoid being diluted with water. If there is an accidental water intake, the protective film/layer that forms on most metals to protect against corrosion will be destroyed causing an acceleration with corrosion.

    Corrosion is affected largely by temperature and humidity. If air is moving constantly in the environment, this can have an effect on how a substance will corrode. Baking soda is a base that can neutralize an acid and prevent any further damage from corrosion. When scientists deal with acids, they usually have a base nearby to cover the acid if any were to get on someone or something important.


    If Stainless Steel is submerged in Sulfuric Acid, then it will corrode the least of the five materials because it is the most resistant.

Possible title for experiment: Crazy Corrosion

Independent Variable: Material put in Acid

Dependent Variable: Percentage of mass lost due to corrosion


  • Type of acid

  • Temperature of room

  • Acid and materials

  • Amount of acid used in each test

  • Amount of material submerged

Materials List:

  • Copper pipe segments x5

  • Stainless steel samples x5

  • Wooden dowels x5

  • Ceramic samples x5

  • Aluminum samples x5

  • Rooto Drain Cleaner (Sulfuric Acid) x2500 mL

  • Glass jars x5

  • Gloves x1 pair per person

  • Lab coat x1 per person

  • Goggles x1 per person

  • Calculator x1

  • Triple beam balance x1

  • Baking Soda x1 package

  • Tweezers x1


  1. Put on all safety equipment

  1. Fill five glass containers with 100 mL of Rooto Drain Cleaner each.

  1. Gather one copper pipe segment, one wooden dowel, one stainless steel sample, one aluminum sample, and one ceramic sample.

  1. Record the mass of each sample and physical characteristics.

  1. Label all of the glass containers 1-5. One will represent Copper, two will represent Stainless Steel, three will represent Wood, four will represent Ceramic, and five will represent Aluminum. Label these on your data table.

  1. Place each material in their respective containers (Ex. Wooden dowel in container 1).

  1. Record observations of immediate physical or chemical change.

  1. Let samples sit for one day.

  1. On day two, record observations of physical and/or chemical change.

  1. Let samples sit for another day.

  1. On day three, record observations of physical and/or chemical change.

  1. Using tweezers, take each sample out of their containers and record their mass.

  1. Using the wooden dowel’s data, subtract the mass of day one from the mass of day three (day 1 mass – day 3 mass). Divide the difference hy the mass of day one (difference ÷ day 1 mass). Take the quotient and multiply it by 100. This will give you the percentage of mass lost from day one to day three from exposure to Sulfuric Acid for the wooden dowel. Repeat this step for each of the other samples.

  1. Record any final physical observations of substance as it lays outside the container.

  1. Clean up workspace and report any spills to Supervisor. Dispose of Drain Cleaner properly.

  1. Repeat steps 2-15 four more times.

  1. Average the percentage of mass lost using the data from the five tests. The material with the least percentage of mass lost is the most resistant material to corrosion in Sulfuric Acid.

An American Plague Journal (Entries 2 & 3)

This is a follow up of my last post with my bio page and entry 1. The next two pages you will see are entries 2 & 3 which are about chapter 2 & 3.


Thursday, August 22, 1793            Journal Entry: Chapter 2

Dear Mom and Dad,

I have recently witnessed a mysterious disease that has killed someone. Dr. Rush was called the a site and instructed me to follow him and record what happened. Some would say that I was too young to see this, but it has tought me a lot.

Catherine LeMaigre was 33 years old. She died of a mysterious disease that had many symptoms. She started off with a feeling of her stomach burning up, and every so often she would vomit black bile. Hodge and Foulke tried to give her drinks of barley and apple water to reduce the fever, and tried to use red wine with laudanum to help her rest. She was also washed regularly with damp clothes, but the condition of LeMaigre had worsened. More symptoms started to appear with bloodshot eyes, a slow pulse, and the skin started to turn a pale yellow. Dr. Rush had examined her and said there was not much they could do. He conferred with his fellow doctors about what symptoms had they seen, so they could identify it in the future. The disease started with painful aching and a headache. Then, a high fever would develop along with constipation. The stage seemed to recover in about three days, but the fever would start back up again accompanied by more symptoms. The eyeballs turned yellow, the nose, gums, and intestines started to bleed and the patient would vomit stale, black blood. Near the end, the tongue turned brown, the pulse grew weak, and the victim became depressed and confused. Dr. Rush also realized that *small reddish eruptions popped out on the skin.

Dr. Rush  and the other doctors also realized that most of the deaths like this happened near Water Street. Where there was a putrid smell in the air caused by the rotting coffee. I learned something new today when they thought the sickness was caused by the unevenness of the humors. Dr. Rush and I just got called to another site. I will write to you again when I have new information.

*Personification                                                                                                   John Franklin


Thursday, August 30, 1793              Journal Entry: Chapter 3

Dear Mom and Dad,

I am afraid that a grave time is coming for Philadelphia. News of the strange disease has spread throughout the city and people have started to leave. I not sure how the city is going to hold up since carpenters, councilmen, shop owners, nurses, bankers, lawyers, and printers are all leaving the city.

I was lucky enough today to be able to witness a meeting of the College of Physicians with Dr. Rush. *The room was definitely serious. Dr. Rush had identified the disease as Yellow Fever and some of the physician agreed with him. They said the cause was the fetid air that had infested Philadelphia. They thought it could be cured by cleaning the streets and purifying the air. Dr. William Currie disagreed with Rush. He had done enough research on Yellow Fever to write two books and did not think that it was Yellow Fever, but some other fever imported from the West Indies by the recently arrived Santo Domingans. He said it was caused by close contact with a person and suggested to quarantine all the sick. Most of the other doctors did not say, but they seemed like they believed Currie more.

The next time the doctors meet they issued a list of measures that everyone should follow. The list said to clean the streets, set up a hospital, avoid fatigue, limit the amount of alcohol you drink, put patients in airy rooms, and change clothes and bed linens regularly. Some doctors suggested thing that were not as intelligent like to put a handkerchief to your nose with strong smelling substances like vinegar or burning gunpowder to purify the air. People started making up cures like smoking tobacco, chewing garlic, laying fresh dirt all around the room at a depth of two inches, taking frequent warm baths, or even inhaling finely ground black pepper.

I started to worry a little that I would contract the fever, but Dr. Rush said I was safe. I write to you as soon as something new pops up!

*Metaphor                                                                                                            John Franklin


Outline for Research Paper

This is the outline for my Mucius Scaevola and Horatius Cocles research paper. I took the information from my journals and organized it into an outline that will be used as the framework for my paper.

  1. Introduction

    1. Thesis – The legends of Mucius Scaevola and Horatius Cocles have had major impacts on modern popular culture, aspiration, and allusionary reference.

    2. The histories of Livy tell us the stories of two exceptional early Roman heros. Mucius Scaevola and Horatius Cocles are greatly influential on modern culture when taken into account how unknown they are in the informal sphere. These young Romans provide archetypal examples of prodigal achievers who gave all they could for their country. Although it is debated whether or not these heroes did what is written, or indeed if they even existed, no one can denounce their effect on contemporary media; the most notable example being Star Wars.

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Research Journal

I’m writing a research paper in Latin class of Mucius Scaevola and Horatius Cocles and their impact on the modern world. Before the paper was written I had to write research journals on the sources I found.

Zoch, Paul. Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012. Print.

“… the Roman’s hope was dimming when Gaius Mucius, a young Roman aristocrat, presented himself to the Senate with a plan to assassinate Porsenna. The Senate consented. (Zoch 43)”

“… I’ll tell you this: we, three hundred noble youth of Rome, have sworn an oath to take this same path against you. (Zoch 44)”

“When the javelins stuck in Horatius’ raised shield, he no less stubbornly controlled the bridge with his formidable presence… (Zoch 42, quoting Livy)”

Gaius Mucius was a young aristocrat living in Rome during the siege by the same Etruscans. He was on a self-inspired mission sanctioned by the Roman Senate to assassinate the king of the Etruscans, Porsenna. He snuck into the camp. Unfortunately for him, it was the soldiers’ pay day, and both the king and his secretary were out in front, dressed in the same attire. Mucius did not know which was the king and unluckily stabbed the advisor instead. After having been questioned by the king, Mucius proudly explained his intentions and held his hand in a nearby fire to show his apathy towards pain. The king was moved and released Mucius, who gained the nickname “Scaevola”, Latin for “lefty”, because of his injured hand.

Mucius’ fame has influenced many aspects of literature and has even earned himself a movie, Hero of Rome. He is also the inspiration for George Lucas’ character of Luke Skywalker. This is because Skywalker sounds similar to Scaevola. Skywalker also loses his right hand. Two other persons, G. Gordon Liddy and Lawrence of Arabia, also use this “trick” to garner emotions from an audience. Cocles in mentioned in the popular culture movie Oblivion.

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An American Plague Journal (Bio and Entry 1)

We started a new book in Language Arts recently. The book is called An American Plague, and while reading through each chapter, we are supposed to write a journal entry about the chapter from the point of view of a character we made up. The book has a total of 11 chapters, so that will be 11 entries plus a bio page. I will be uploading the entries by two. Below is my bio page for my character and entry 1.


                                           Bio Page


Name: John James Franklin

Age: 12

Background: John Franklin was born into a very poor family that lived in Philadelphia. John’s parents were fishing for a wealthy family to be able to support themselves. When he was 3, John’s parents died during a storm when they were at sea. The family that they worked for did not want to take care of John and left him to fend for himself. A sympathetic family took John in and has cared for him since. The family has always thought of John as their own son because they did not have other children, but John has always remembered his real parents and wanted them back so much. He later developed a skill for writing when he was 7 and his step-family gave him a journal for his 8th birthday. He later started an apprenticeship with the local newspaper when he was 10. He always had found something interesting to write about in the city, and he has become pretty well known among the locals.


Saturday, August 10, 1793           Journal Entry: Chapter 1

Dear Mom and Dad,

I want you back so much, but since I know you can not come back to me I decided to keep you up to date with this new journal my step-family got me. First off, a cargo ship arrived last week with spoiled coffee on it. They could not find a place to put it, so they just dumped it on Ball’s Wharf! The city has had a horrible odor over it for the past week that is starting to become upsetting.

I have recently heard rumors about something called “The French Madness” happening inside Philadelphia. There was supposedly thousands of people threatening George Washington with thoughts of starting a revolution in the government or to force them to declare war in favor of the French revolutionaries. I did not believe those statements at the time, but when I figured out the Robert Morris had lent his house to Washington I went to check it out. I could not believe my own eyes. There were millions of people* from France rallied around the house and shouting something I could not understand. I even got close enough to see our president, George Washington, peek out of the curtain!

There was one really strange thing going on in the city. The markets were filled with a huge supply of wild pigeons. When I saw this, I remembered what you told me that such a large supply of pigeons brought sickness and bad air.

Last but not least, I have started an apprenticeship as a journalist. I was assigned to the famous Dr. Benjamin Rush! He has been explaining his ideas and thoughts to me lately and what is happening in the city is starting to become clearer. He said to me that he sensed something odd happening but had no time time to deal with it as he was focused dealing with a different sickness this year. Rush said that there was Mumps in January, mouth infections in February, scarlet fever in March, and influenza in July.

When I get more interesting info I write to you again.

Hyperbole*                                                                                                        John Franklin


Faux GoPo

For my AP Government and Politics class we had been practicing writing FRQs (Free Response Questions) which are on our test and will be on the AP exam. This is my final.

   Different governments around the world have different ways of organizing and distributing power within the nation. Two of most popular forms of government, unitary and federal, are both similar and different from each other.

   A unitary government is one where the central government has most to all of the power. State and local governments may exist, but for them to pass any bill or act, permission from the central government must be given. The state and local government’s job is to pass legislature which would be difficult and inconvenient for the central government to pass (i.e. road laws, education). A unitary government usually ensures national unity and stability. But the central government does not have a very close tie to most of the population.

   Federalism in the United States is a system where the central and state governments have equal, for the most part, power and authority. In the United States, the states and federal government have overlapping powers. This is called cooperative federalism. The states have limited sovereignty but a state’s legislature can not go against the federal law or the constitution. A federal government gives the people a closer tie to the government but allows for factions to cause instability.

   There are both differences and similarities between a federalist and a unitary government. Both a federalist and unitary government have a sovereign central government which has the highest authority. Both forms of government have multiple levels of government even if some of the levels do not have much power. In a federalist government the states have a form of sovereignty from the national government whilst in a unitary government the states are completely under control by the central government. In a unitary government the states must get permission from the central government to do pretty much anything whilst in a federalist government the states have the ability to do a lot of different things if it does not go against a federal law or the constitution. In a federal government in the United States, the states and the federal government have powers which overlap each other whilst in a unitary government the central government has powers that they can use and the states have powers (though very few) that they can use.

    The United States has a federal government but is that system the best for the country and its people? It is, because the United States is so diverse in its culture and is so large that a federalist government is best. In a small nation with few people and united beliefs and ideals a unitary government is perfect, but in the United States a law for one person may not be great for another person in another part of the country. A federalist government allows people to be close enough to the government in their local area that they can influence it to help them and fulfill their needs. The United States has a lot of agriculture areas and a lot of industrial areas. The agriculture states can get farm assistance while the industrial states can get food stamps. Everyone gets what they need.
Federalism and unitary are two different forms of government that are both similar and different in multiple ways. Certain nations can benefit from one type while the others can benefit from the another system depending on their n

Got Milk? (Do you really need it?)

This year in school I am taking health and our latest project was to write a paper about milk and draw a conclusion if you really need it. Before I wrote this paper I had my decision already, but after doing some research I changed my mind.


Milk is not necessary for us to survive. In fact Milk can actually do harm to some of us. Milk allergy is the second most common food allergy behind peanuts. A milk allergy can be life-threatening to a lot of people so it is necessary to stop them from taking in any milk related products. My brother has a severe allergy to all diary and is living fine, maybe even better than the rest of my family. Milk is known to be an essential part of our diet with lots of important nutrients and vitamins like calcium, potassium, phosphorus, vitamin D, vitamin B12, vitamin A, riboflavin, and niacin, but those can be found in other foods and with less of a setback. The president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Neal Barnard says “Sugar — in the form of lactose — contributes about 55 percent of skim milk’s calories, giving it ounce for ounce the same calorie load as soda.” We need to stop drinking milk, as it may not only be less healthy than we expected for us, but getting the milk from cows can hurt the environment. Brian Merchant said, “cows are leading contributors to climate change … Accounting for putting out 18% of the world’s carbon dioxide, cows emit more greenhouse gases than cars, planes, and all other forms of transportation combined.” Cow’s milk is meant to raise a 65 pound calf into a 400 pound cow in just one year. Human milk has 10 times the amount of essential acids, half the calcium, and three times more selenium (which is needed for cellular function), while cows have 3 times the protein and seven times the minerals. Cow milk is unnecessary and is actually a poor source of dietary calcium as most of the calcium that we take in is through a plant-based diet. Milk definitely does not outweigh its consequences with its benefits and we should stop drinking it.